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eCore Public Speaking Textbook (COMM 1113)

This guide serves as the primary text for COMM 1113 in eCore.

Persuasive Speaking

Proposition- the central idea statement in a persuasive speech; a statement made advancing a judgment or opinion

Target Audience- the members of an audience the speaker most wants to persuade and who are likely to be receptive to persuasive messages

Persuasion- a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice

Mental Dialogue- an imagined conversation the speaker has with a given audience in which the speaker tries to anticipate what questions, concerns, or issues the audience may have to the subject under discussion

Selective Exposure- the decision to expose ourselves to messages that we already agree with, rather than those that confront or challenge us

Cognitive Dissonance- a psychological phenomenon where people confronted with conflicting information or viewpoints reach a state of dissonance (generally the disagreement between conflicting thoughts and/or actions), which can be very uncomfortable, and results in actions to get rid of the dissonance and maintain consonance

Two-tailed Arguments- a persuasive technique in which a speaker brings up a counter-argument to their own topic and then directly refutes the claim

Ethos- the influence of speaker credentials and character in a speech; arguments based on credibility

Logos- logical and organized arguments and the credible evidence to support the arguments within a speech; arguments based on logic

Pathos- the use of emotions such as anger, joy, hate, desire for community, and love to persuade the audience of the rightness of a proposition; arguments based on emotion

Logical Reasoning

Analogical Reasoning- drawing conclusions about an object or phenomenon based on its similarities to something else

Figurative Analogy- an analogy where the two things under comparison are not essentially the same

Literal Analogy- an analogy where the two things under comparison have sufficient or significant similarities to be compared fairly

Logical Fallacies- mistakes in reasoning; erroneous conclusions or statements made from poor inductive or deductive analyses

Inductive Reasoning- a type of reasoning in which examples or specific instances are used to supply strong evidence for (though not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion; the scientific method

Generalization- a form of inductive reasoning that draws conclusions based on recurring patterns or repeated observations

Causal Reasoning- a form of inductive reasoning that seeks to make cause-effect connections

Sign Reasoning- a form of inductive reasoning in which conclusions are drawn about phenomena based on events that precede or co-exist with (but not cause) a subsequent event

Analogical Reasoning- drawing conclusions about an object or phenomenon based on its similarities to something else

Deductive Reasoning- a type of reasoning in which a conclusion is based on the combination of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true

Syllogism- a three-sentence argument composed of a major premise (a generalization or principle that is accepted as true), a minor premise (and example of the major premise), and a conclusion

Enthymeme- a syllogism with one of the premises missing

False Analogy- a fallacy where two things are compared that do not share enough (or key) similarities to be compared fairly

False Cause- a general fallacy involving causal reasoning, where it is assumed that something that is neither strong or direct enough has caused something else, or something that happened first in time caused something later

Slippery Slope- a fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent events that cannot be prevented

Hasty Generalization- a fallacy that involves making a generalization with too few examples

Straw Man- a fallacy that shows only the weaker side of an opponent’s argument in order to more easily tear it down

Post hoc ergo propter hoc (historical fallacy)- using progression in time as the reason for causation, but nothing else

Argument from Silence- making a converse argument from lack of evidence or information about a conclusion

Non Sequitur- a fallacy where the conclusion does not follow from its premise

False Dilemma- a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist

Appeal to Tradition- arguing that traditional practice and longterm history is the only reason for continuing a policy

Bandwagon- a fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

Red Herring- creating a diversion or introducing an irrelevant point to distract someone or get someone off the subject of the argument

Ad hominem- a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute

Ad misericordium- inappropriate appeal to pity or emotions to hide lack of facts or argument

 

Presentation Aids

Presentation Aids- the resources beyond the speech itself that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience

Olfactory- of or relating to the sense of smell

Gustatory- of or relating to the sense of taste

Chart- graphical representation of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process

Graph- a pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like

Line Graph- a graph designed to show trends over time

Bar Graph- a graph designed to show the differences between quantities

Pie Graph- a graph designed to show proportional relationships within sets of data

Pictograph- a graph using iconic symbols to dramatize differences in amounts

Diagrams- drawings or sketches that outline and explain the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen

Tone- the attitude of a given artifact (humorous, serious, light-hearted, etc.)

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